State of Connecticut

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS (MDA)

The following discussion and analysis is intended to provide readers of the State's financial statements with a narrative overview and analysis of the financial activities of the State for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2011. The information provided here should be read in conjunction with additional information provided in the letter of transmittal and in the basic financial statements.

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

Government-wide:
As of June 30, 2011, the State had a combined net asset deficit of $9.9 billion, an increase of $502 million when compared to the prior year ending deficit balance. This increase resulted mainly from an increase of $410 million in the net asset deficit of governmental activities.

Fund Level:
The governmental funds had a total fund balance of $1.4 billion at year end. Of this amount, $2.6 billion represents fund balance that is considered restricted for specific purposes by external constraints or enabling legislation and $1.8 billion represents unassigned fund balance deficit. The General Fund's share of the deficit is $1.7 billion, which increased by $351 million this fiscal year.

The Enterprise funds had total net assets of $4.2 billion, substantially all of which was invested in capital assets or restricted for specific purposes.

Long-Term Debt:
Total long-term debt was $26.8 billion for governmental activities, of which $18.6 billion was bonded debt.

Total long-term debt was $2.9 billion for business-type activities, of which $1.6 billion was bonded debt.

OVERVIEW OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

This discussion and analysis is intended to serve as an introduction to the State's basic financial statements. The State's basic financial statements comprise three components: 1) government-wide financial statements, 2) fund financial statements, and 3) notes to the financial statements. This report also contains other supplementary information in addition to the basic financial statements themselves.

Government-wide Financial Statements

The government-wide financial statements are designed to provide readers with a broad overview of the State's finances, in a manner similar to a private-sector business.

The statement of net assets presents information on all of the State's non-fiduciary assets and liabilities, with the difference between the two reported as net assets. Over time, increases or decreases in net assets may serve as a useful indicator of whether the financial position of the State is improving or deteriorating.

The statement of activities presents information showing how the State's net assets changed during the most recent fiscal year. All changes in net assets are reported as soon as the underlying event giving rise to the change occurs, regardless of the timing of the related cash flows. Thus, revenues and expenses are reported in this statement for some items that will result in cash flows in future fiscal periods (e.g., uncollected taxes and earned but unused vacation leave).

The government-wide financial statements are intended to distinguish functions of the State that are principally supported by taxes and intergovernmental revenues (governmental activities) from other functions that are intended to recover all or a significant portion of their costs through user fees and charges (business-type activities). The governmental activities of the State include legislative, general government, regulation and protection, conservation and development, health and hospitals, transportation, human services, education, libraries, and museums, corrections, and judicial. The business-type activities of the State include the University of Connecticut and Health Center, State Universities, Bradley International Airport, Connecticut Lottery Corporation, Employment Security, and Clean Water, which are considered major funds, while the remaining business-type activities are combined into a single aggregate presentation.

The government-wide financial statements include not only the State itself (known as the primary government), but also the activities of eight legally separate Component Units for which the State is financially accountable: the Connecticut Housing Finance Authority, the Connecticut Health and Educational Facilities Authority, the Connecticut Development Authority, the Connecticut Higher Education Supplemental Loan Authority, the Connecticut Resources Recovery Authority, Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated, the Capital City Economic Development Authority, and the University of Connecticut Foundation, Incorporated. Financial information for these Component Units is reported separately from the financial information presented for the primary government itself. Financial information of the individual component units can be found in the basic financial statements following the fund statements, and complete financial statements of the individual component units can be obtained from their respective administrative offices.

Fund Financial Statements

A fund is a grouping of related accounts that is used to maintain control over resources that have been segregated for specific activities or objectives. The State uses fund accounting to ensure and demonstrate compliance with finance-related legal requirements. All of the funds of the State can be divided into three categories: governmental funds, proprietary funds, and fiduciary funds.

Governmental Funds

Governmental funds are used to account for essentially the same functions reported as governmental activities in the government-wide financial statements. However, unlike the government-wide financial statements, governmental fund financial statements focus on near-term inflows and outflows of spendable resources, as well as on balances of spendable resources available at the end of the fiscal year. Such information may be useful in evaluating the State's near-term financing requirements.

Because the focus of governmental funds is narrower than that of the government-wide financial statements, it is useful to compare the information presented for governmental funds with similar information presented for governmental activities in the government-wide financial statements. By doing so, readers may better understand the long-term impact of the State's near-term financing decisions. Both the governmental fund balance sheet and the governmental fund statement of revenues, expenditures, and changes in fund balance provide a reconciliation to facilitate the comparison between governmental funds and governmental activities.

Information is presented separately in the governmental fund balance sheet and in the governmental fund statement of revenues, expenditures, and changes in fund balances for the General Fund, the Debt Service Fund, the Transportation Fund, and the Restricted Grants and Accounts Fund, all of which are considered major funds. Data from other governmental funds is combined into a single, aggregated presentation. Individual fund data for each of these nonmajor governmental funds is provided in the form of combining statements elsewhere in this report.

Starting in fiscal year 2011, governmental fund balance (difference between assets and liabilities) is classified as nonspendable, restricted, and unrestricted (committed, assigned or unassigned).

The State adopts a biennial budget for the General Fund, the Transportation Fund, and other Special Revenue funds. A budgetary comparison statement has been provided for the General Fund and the Transportation Fund to demonstrate compliance with the current fiscal year budgets.

Proprietary Funds

Proprietary funds (Enterprise funds and Internal Service funds) are used to show activities that operate more like those of commercial enterprises. Enterprise funds charge fees for services provided to outside customers. They are used to report the same functions presented as business-type activities in the government-wide financial statements. Internal Service funds are an accounting device used to accumulate and allocate costs internally among the State's various functions. The State uses Internal Service funds to account for correction industries, information technology, and administrative services. Because these services predominately benefit governmental rather than business-type functions, they have been included within governmental activities in the government-wide financial statements.

Fiduciary Funds

Fiduciary funds are used to account for resources held by the State in a trustee or agency capacity for others. Fiduciary funds are not included in the government-wide financial statements because the resources of those funds are not available to support the State's own programs. The accounting used for fiduciary funds is much like that used for proprietary funds.

Notes to the Financial Statements

The notes to the financial statements provide additional information that is essential to a full understanding of the data provided in the government-wide and fund financial statements.

Required Supplementary Information

The basic financial statements are followed by a section of required supplementary information that further explains and supports the information in the financial statements. The required supplementary information includes information regarding the State's progress on funding its obligation to provide pension and other postemployment benefits to its employees.

Other Information

In addition to the basic financial statements and accompanying notes, this report also contains the following information.

FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF THE GOVERNMENT AS A WHOLE

NET ASSETS

As noted earlier, net assets may serve over time as a useful indicator of the State's financial position. During the current fiscal year, the combined net asset deficit of the State increased 5.4 percent to $9.9 billion. In comparison, last year the combined net asset deficit increased 58 percent.

State Of Connecticut's Net Assets
(Expressed in Millions)

Governmental Activities Business-Type Activities Total Primary Government
2011 2010* 2011 2010 2011 2010*
ASSETS:
Current and Other Assets $ 4,228 $ 4,601 $ 4,236 $ 4,051 $ 8 ,464 $ 8 ,652
Capital Assets 10,924 10,570 3,468 3,382 14,392 13,952
Total Assets 15,152 15,171 7,704 7,433 22,856 22,604
LIABILITIES:
Current Liabilities 3,824 4,417 787 792 4,611 5,209
Long-term Liabilities 25,378 24,394 2,724 2,356 28,102 26,750
Total Liabilities 29,202 28,811 3,511 3,148 32,713 31,959
NET ASSETS:
Invested in Capital Assets,
Net of Related Debt 4,905 4,910 2,819 2,671 7,724 7,581
Restricted 1,810 1,778 1,152 1,264 2,962 3,042
Unrestricted (20,765) (20,328) 222 350 (20,543) (19,978)
Total Net Assets (Deficit) $ ( 14,050) $ (13,640) $ 4,193 $ 4,285 $ (9,857) $ (9,355)

*Restated for comparative purposes. See Note 23.

The net asset deficit of the State's governmental activities increased $410 million (3.0 percent) to $14.1 billion during the current fiscal year. Of this amount, $4.9 billion was invested in capital assets (buildings, roads, bridges, etc.) and $1.8 billion was restricted for specific purposes, resulting in an unrestricted net asset deficit of $20.8 billion. This deficit is the result of having long-term obligations that are greater than currently available resources. Specifically, the State has recorded the following outstanding long-term obligations which contributed to the deficit; a) general obligation bonds issued in the amount of $5.7 billion to finance various municipal grant programs (e.g., school construction) and $2.3 billion issued to finance a contribution to a pension trust fund, and b) other long-term obligations in the amount of $8.2 billion, which are partially funded or not funded by the State (e.g., net pension and OPEB obligations and compensated absences).

Net assets of the State's business-type activities decreased $91 million (2.1 percent) to $4.2 billion during the current fiscal year. Of this amount, $2.8 billion was invested in capital assets and $1.2 billion was restricted for specific purposes, resulting in unrestricted net assets of $0.2 billion. These resources cannot be used to make up for the net asset deficit of the State's governmental activities. The State can only use these net assets to finance the ongoing operations of its Enterprise funds (such as the University of Connecticut and Health Center, Bradley International Airport, and others).

CHANGE IN NET ASSETS

Changes in net assets for the years ended June 30, 2011 and 2010 were as follows:

State of Connecticut's Changes in Net Assets
(Expressed in Millions)

Governmental Activities Business-Type Activities Total %change
2011 2010* 2011 2010 2011 2010* 11-10
REVENUES
Program Revenues
Charges for Services $ 1,647 $ 1,522 $ 3,416 $ 3,223 $ 5,063 $ 4,745 6.7%
Operating Grants and Contributions 6,350 6,113 1,790 1,885 8,140 7,998 1.8%
Capital Grants and Contributions 725 766 40 18 765 784 -2.4%
General Revenues
Taxes 12,788 11,583 - - 12,788 11,583 10.4%
Casino Gaming Payments 360 384 - - 360 384 -6.3%
Other 141 156 32 40 173 196 -11.7%
Total Revenues 22,011 20,524 5,278 5,166 27,289 25,690 6.2%
EXPENSES
Legislative 100 106 - - 100 106 -5.7%
General Government 1,509 1,566 - - 1,509 1,566 -3.6%
Regulation and Protection 780 796 - - 780 796 -2.0%
Conservation and Development 529 566 - - 529 566 -6.5%
Health and Hospitals 2,301 2,443 - - 2,301 2,443 -5.8%
Transportation 1,638 1,741 - - 1,638 1,741 -5.9%
Human Services 6,676 6,830 - - 6,676 6,830 -2.3%
Education, Libraries and
Museums 4,463 4,921 - - 4,463 4,921 -9.3%
Corrections 1,932 2,083 - - 1,932 2,083 -7.2%
Judicial 828 828 - - 828 828 0.0%
Interest and Fiscal Charges 874 793 - - 874 793 10.2%
University of Connecticut &
Health Center - - 1,807 1,703 1,807 1,703 6.1%
State Universities - - 652 650 652 650 0.3%
Bradley International Airport - - 68 69 68 69 -1.4%
CT Lottery Corporation - - 738 723 738 723 2.1%
Employment Security - - 2,307 2,701 2,307 2,701 -14.6%
Clean Water - - 45 53 45 53 -15.1%
Other - - 543 527 543 527 3.0%
Total Expenses 21,630 22,673 6,160 6,426 27,790 29,099 -4.5%
Excess (Deficiency)
Before Transfers and Special Items 381 ( 2,149) ( 882) ( 1,260) ( 501) ( 3,409) -85.3%
Special Items - 21 - ( 21) - - 0.0%
Transfers (791) (1,062) 791 1,062 - - 0.0%
Increase (Decrease) in
Net Assets ( 410) (3,190) (91) ( 219) ( 501) ( 3,409) -85.3%
Net Assets (Deficit) -
Beginning (as restated) (13,640) (10,450) 4,284 4,504 (9,356) (5,946) 57.3%
Net Assets (Deficit) - Ending $ ( 14,050) $ (13,640) $ 4,193 $ 4,285 $ ( 9,857) $ ( 9,355) 5.4%

*Restated for comparative purposes. See Note 23.

GOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES
The following charts provide a two-year comparison of governmental activities revenues and expenses.

Revenue - Governmental Activities by Revenue Type 2010/2011

Expenses - Governmental Activities by Functional Category 2010/2011

During the year, total revenues of governmental activities increased 7.2 percent to $22.0 billion, while total expenses decreased 4.6 percent to $21.6 billion. In comparison, last year total revenues and expenses increased 3.7 percent and 1.3 percent, respectively. The increase in total revenues ($1.5 billion) was due mainly to an increase in taxes of $1.2 billion or 10.4 percent. The decrease in total expenditures ($1.0 billion) was due mainly to a decrease in education, libraries, and museum expenditures of $458 million or 9.3%. Although, total revenues exceeded total expenses by $381 million, this excess was reduced by transfers of $791 million, resulting in a decrease in net assets of $410 million.

BUSINESS-TYPE ACTIVITIES
The following charts provide a two-year comparison of business-type activities revenues and expenses.

Revenues - Business-Type Activities by Revenue Type 2010/2011

Expenses - Business-Type Activities by Activity - 2010/2011

During the year, total revenues of business-type increased 2.2 percent to $5.3 billion, while total expenses decreased 4.1 percent to $6.2 billion. In comparison, last year total revenues and expenses increased 24.3 percent and 21.9 percent respectively. The decrease in total expenses ($266 million) was due mainly to a decrease in Employment Security expenses of $394 million or 14.6 percent. Although, total expenses exceeded total revenues by $882 million, this deficiency was reduced by transfers of $791 million, resulting in a decrease in net assets of $91 million.

FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF THE STATE'S FUNDS

Governmental Funds

The focus of the State's governmental funds is to provide information on near-term inflows, outflows, and balances of spendable resources. Such information is useful in assessing the State's financing requirements. In particular, unassigned fund balance serves as a useful measure of the State's net resources available for spending at the end of the fiscal year.

As of June 30, 2011, the State's governmental funds had fund balances of $1.4 billion, remaining unchanged when compared to the prior year ending fund balances. Of the total governmental fund balances, $2.6 billion represents fund balance that is considered restricted for specific purposes by external constrains or enabling legislation; $0.4 billion represents fund balance that is committed or assigned for specific purposes by the Legislature and $1.8 billion represents unassigned fund balance deficit.

General Fund

The General Fund is the chief operating fund of the State. As of June 30, 2011, the General Fund had a fund balance deficit of $1.3 billion. Of this amount, $0.4 billion represents fund balance that is committed or assigned for specific purposes by the Legislature, leaving a deficit of $1.7 billion in unassigned fund balance. Fund balance decreased by $351 million during the current fiscal year.

Debt Service Fund

As of June 30, 2011, the Debt Service Fund had a fund balance of $709 million, all of which was restricted. Fund balance increased by $21 million during the current fiscal year.

Transportation Fund

As of June 30, 2011, the Transportation Fund had a fund balance of $170 million. Of this amount, $28 million was in nonspendable form and $142 million was restricted for specific purposes. Fund balance increased by $6 million during the current fiscal year.

Restricted Grants and Accounts Fund

As of June 30, 2011, the Restricted Grants and Accounts Fund had a fund balance of $444 million, all of which was restricted for specific purposes. Fund balance decreased by $177 million during the fiscal year.

Proprietary Funds

The State's Proprietary funds provide the same type of information found in the government-wide financial statements, but in more detail. Accordingly, a discussion of the financial activities of the Proprietary funds has been provided in that section.

Fiduciary Funds

The State maintains Fiduciary funds for the assets of Pension and Other Employee Benefit Trust funds, an Investment Trust fund, and a Private-Purpose Trust fund. As of June 30, 2011, the net assets of the State's Fiduciary funds totaled $25.8 billion, an increase of $3.0 billion when compared to the prior year ending net asset balance.

Budgetary Highlights-General Fund

The General Fund had an estimated budget surplus of $0.2 million at the start of the fiscal year. During the first quarter of the year, the fund had an estimated budget deficit of $45 million, instead, as the State's economy continued to experience a slow recovery. However, due to deficit reduction measures adopted by the State legislature in prior years, the fund had a final estimated budget surplus of $159 million at the end of the fiscal year.

Although actual fund expenditures exceeded revenues by $138 million, this deficiency was reduced by other financing sources of $375 million (including a transfer of 2010 fiscal year surplus of $450 million), resulting in an actual budget surplus of $237 million for the fiscal year.

Actual revenues were almost the same as originally budgeted for the fiscal year. Final budgeted appropriations were greater than originally budgeted by $391 million for the fiscal year. This increase resulted mainly from an increase in human services appropriations of $278 million, specifically Medicaid appropriations increased by $651 million.

CAPITAL ASSETS AND DEBT ADMINISTRATION

Capital Assets

The State's investment in capital assets for its governmental and business-type activities as of June 30, 2011 totaled $14.4 billion (net of accumulated depreciation). This investment in capital assets includes land, buildings, improvements other than buildings, equipment, infrastructure, and construction in progress. The net increase in the State's investment in capital assets for the fiscal year was $440 million, due mainly to an increase in governmental activities' capital assets of $354 million or 3.3 percent.

Major capital asset events for governmental activities during the fiscal year included the following:

The following table is a two-year comparison of the investment in capital assets presented for both governmental and business-type activities:

State of Connecticut's Capital Assets
(Net of Depreciation, in Millions)

Governmental Business-Type Total
Activities Activities Primary Government
2011 2010 2011 2010 2011 2010
Land $1,595 $1,562 $65 $60 $1,660 $1,622
Buildings 1,476 1,453 2,515 2,530 3,991 3,983
Improvements Other than Buildings 176 201 247 254 423 455
Equipment 154 44 346 344 500 388
Infrastructure 5,183 5,591 - - 5,183 5,591
Construction in Progress 2,340 1,719 295 194 2,635 1,913
Total $10,924 $10,570 $3,468 $ 3 ,382 $4,392 $13,952

Additional information on the State's capital assets can be found in Note 10 of this report.

Long-Term Debt
Bonded Debt

At the end of the current fiscal year, the State had total bonded debt of $20.2 billion. Pursuant to various public and special acts, the State has authorized the issuance of the following types of debt: general obligation debt (payable from the General Fund), special tax obligation debt (payable from the Debt Service Fund), and revenue debt (payable from specific revenues of the Enterprise funds).

The following table is a two-year comparison of bonded debt presented for both governmental and business-type activities:

State of Connecticut's Bonded Debt (in millions)
General Obligation and Revenue Bonds

Governmental Business-Type Total
Activities Activities Primary Government
2011 2010 2011 2010 2011 2010
General Obligation Bonds $13,794 $ 13,593 $ - $ - $ 13,794 $ 13,593
Transportation Related Bonds 3,358 3,030 - - 3,358 3,030
Revenue Bonds - - 1,556 1,498 1,556 1,498
Long-Term Notes 916 1,144 - - 916 1,144
Premiums and deferred amounts 526 527 51 41 577 568
Total $18,594 $18,294 $1,607 $1,539 $20,201 $19,833

The State's total bonded debt increased by $368 million (1.9 percent) during the current fiscal year. This increase resulted mainly from an increase in transportation related bonds of $328 million.

Section 3-21 of the Connecticut General Statutes provides that the total amount of bonds, notes or other evidences of indebtedness payable from General Fund tax receipts authorized by the General Assembly but have not been issued and the total amount of such indebtedness which has been issued and remains outstanding shall not exceed 1.6 times the total estimated General Fund tax receipts of the State for the current fiscal year. In computing the indebtedness at any time, revenue anticipation notes, refunded indebtedness, bond anticipation notes, tax increment financing, budget deficit bonding, revenue bonding, balances in debt retirement funds and other indebtedness pursuant to certain provisions of the General Statutes shall be excluded from the calculation. As of October 2011, the State had a debt incurring margin of $6.9 billion.

Other Long-Term Debt

State of Connecticut's Other Long - Term Debt (in Millions)

Governmental Business-Type Total
Activities Activities Primary Government
2011 2010 2011 2010 2011 2010
Net Pension Obligation $2,447 $ 2,262 $ - $ - $ 2,447 $ 2,262
Net OPEB Obligation 4,603 4,441 - - 4,603 4,441
Compensated Absences 560 523 155 147 715 670
Workers Compensation 511 461 - - 511 461
Lottery Prizes - - 162 181 162 181
Federal Loan Payable - - 810 499 810 499
Other 122 130 183 194 305 324
Total $8,243 $7,817 $1,310 $1,021 $9,553 $8,838

The State's other long-term obligations increased by $715 million (8.1 percent) during the fiscal year. This increase was due mainly to an increase in Federal loan payable (Business-Type activities) of $311 million or 62.3 percent.

Additional information on the State's long-term debt can be found in Notes 17 and 18 of this report.

Economic Factors and Next Year's Budget

The national economy as measured by real GDP grew at a moderate rate of just over 2 percent during the first two quarters of fiscal year 2011 before slowing sharply in the second half of the fiscal year. Second half growth was about half of the first half level. This is consistent with Connecticut's job performance, which expanded by 15,200 payroll jobs during fiscal year 2011 with most of the gain coming during the first six months of the fiscal year.

In fiscal year 2011, Connecticut weekly earnings increased at a 3.3 percent rate. The State's personal income has been growing at a rate in excess of 4 percent.

The stock market realized double-digit gains over the course of the fiscal year. The DOW increased by 25 percent as recessionary pressures eased. Historic growth was posted in corporate profits in calendar year 2010 with solid results continuing into the first quarter of 2011.

Retail sales were strong throughout fiscal year 2011 growing by more than 8 percent. The personal savings rate declined steadily during most of fiscal year. The higher store sales helped to boost Connecticut's fiscal year 2011 sales tax revenues by 4.7 percent from a year ago.

The State's housing sector continued to struggle in fiscal year 2011. New housing permits declined 5 percent from already depressed levels and existing home sales fell 19 percent during the fiscal year with quarterly sales at about half of the 2005 level.

After declining in 2009, Connecticut's export sector rebounded with solid growth in 2010 continuing into 2011 with double-digit growth.

For fiscal year 2012, the budget for the General Fund had an estimated $80.9 million surplus at the start of the fiscal year. Budgeted revenues were expected to increase 3.9 percent to $18.8 billion, while budgeted appropriations were expected to increase 1.3 percent to $18.7 billion. During the second quarter of the fiscal year, the estimated budget surplus was reduced to $1.4 million due to a decline in forecasted revenue of $83 million.

CONTACTING THE STATE'S OFFICES OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

This financial report is designed to provide our citizens, taxpayers, customers, investors, and creditors with a general overview of the State's finances and to demonstrate the State's accountability for the money it receives. If you have any questions about this report, please contact the State Comptroller's Office at 1-860-702-3350.