MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS (MDA)
The following discussion and analysis is intended to provide readers of the State's financial statements with a narrative overview and analysis of the financial activities of the State for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2009. The information provided here should be read in conjunction with additional information provided in the letter of transmittal and in the basic financial statements.
As of June 30, 2009, the State had a combined net asset deficit of $5.1 billion, an increase of $2.8 billion when compared to the prior year ending deficit balance. This increase resulted mainly from a decrease of $2.6 billion in the net assets of governmental activities. The governmental activities reflect the impact of an economic recession that resulted in a $1.4 billion decline in Fiscal Year 2009 tax revenues from the prior fiscal year. Despite deficit mitigation efforts of over half a billion dollars during the course of Fiscal Year 2009, at year-end the budgetary imbalance was approaching one billion dollars in the General Fund. In addition, In Fiscal Year 2009 the state failed to contribute its full required contribution to the state employee pension fund and the state employee OPEB fund.
The governmental funds had a total fund balance of $1.4 billion at year end. Of this amount, $3.2 billion was reserved for various purposes, resulting in a total unreserved fund balance deficit of $1.8 billion. The portion of the total unreserved fund balance deficit that pertains to the General Fund was a $2.3 billion deficit. The General Fund had an actual budget deficit of $1.0 billion this year.
The Enterprise funds had total net assets of $4.5 billion, substantially all of which was invested in capital assets or restricted for various purposes.
It should be noted that Public Act 09-2 of the June Special Session authorized the State Treasurer to issue economic recovery notes to cover the Fiscal Year 2009 budgetary shortfall in the State's General Fund of $947.6 million. The notes were issued in Fiscal Year 2010 and therefore the proceeds are not reflected in the Fiscal Year 2009 financial statements.
Total long-term debt was $22.5 billion for governmental activities, of which $16.9 billion was bonded debt.
Total long-term debt was $2.2 billion for business-type activities, of which $1.6 billion was bonded debt.
OVERVIEW OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
This discussion and analysis is intended to serve as an introduction to the State's basic financial statements. The State's basic financial statements comprise three components: 1) government-wide financial statements, 2) fund financial statements, and 3) notes to the financial statements. This report also contains other supplementary information in addition to the basic financial statements themselves.
Government-wide Financial Statements
The government-wide financial statements are designed to provide readers with a broad overview of the State's finances, in a manner similar to a private-sector business.
The statement of net assets presents information on all of the State's non-fiduciary assets and liabilities, with the difference between the two reported as net assets. Over time, increases or decreases in net assets may serve as a useful indicator of whether the financial position of the State is improving or deteriorating.
The statement of activities presents information showing how the State's net assets changed during the most recent fiscal year. All changes in net assets are reported as soon as the underlying event giving rise to the change occurs, regardless of the timing of the related cash flows. Thus, revenues and expenses are reported in this statement for some items that will result in cash flows in future fiscal periods (e.g., uncollected taxes and earned but unused vacation leave).
The government-wide financial statements are intended to distinguish functions of the State that are principally supported by taxes and intergovernmental revenues (governmental activities) from other functions that are intended to recover all or a significant portion of their costs through user fees and charges (business-type activities). The governmental activities of the State include legislative, general government, regulation and protection, conservation and development, health and hospitals, transportation, human services, education, libraries, and museums, corrections, and judicial. The business-type activities of the State include the University of Connecticut and Health Center, State Universities, Bradley International Airport, Connecticut Lottery Corporation, Employment Security, and Clean Water, which are considered to be major funds, while the remaining business-type activities are combined into a single aggregate presentation.
The government-wide financial statements include not only the State itself (known as the primary government), but also the activities of eight legally separate Component Units for which the State is financially accountable: the Connecticut Housing Finance Authority, the Connecticut Health and Educational Facilities Authority, the Connecticut Development Authority, the Connecticut Higher Education Supplemental Loan Authority, the Connecticut Resources Recovery Authority, the Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated, the Capital City Economic Development Authority, and the University of Connecticut Foundation, Incorporated. Financial information for these Component Units is reported separately from the financial information presented for the primary government itself. Financial information of the individual component units can be found in the basic financial statements following the fund statements, and complete financial statements of the individual component units can be obtained from their respective administrative offices.
Fund Financial Statements
A fund is a grouping of related accounts that is used to maintain control over resources that have been segregated for specific activities or objectives. The State uses fund accounting to ensure and demonstrate compliance with finance-related legal requirements. All of the funds of the State can be divided into three categories: governmental funds, proprietary funds, and fiduciary funds.
Governmental funds are used to account for essentially the same functions reported as governmental activities in the government-wide financial statements. However, unlike the government-wide financial statements, governmental fund financial statements focus on near-term inflows and outflows of spendable resources, as well as on balances of spendable resources available at the end of the fiscal year. Such information may be useful in evaluating the State's near-term financing requirements.
Because the focus of governmental funds is narrower than that of the government-wide financial statements, it is useful to compare the information presented for governmental funds with similar information presented for governmental activities in the government-wide financial statements. By doing so, readers may better understand the long-term impact of the State's near-term financing decisions. Both the governmental fund balance sheet and the governmental fund statement of revenues, expenditures, and changes in fund balance provide a reconciliation to facilitate the comparison between governmental funds and governmental activities.
Information is presented separately in the governmental fund balance sheet and in the governmental fund statement of revenues, expenditures, and changes in fund balances for the General Fund, the Debt Service Fund, the Transportation Fund, and the Restricted Grants and Accounts Fund, all of which are considered to be major funds. Data from other governmental funds is combined into a single, aggregated presentation. Individual fund data for each of these nonmajor governmental funds is provided in the form of combining statements elsewhere in this report.
The State adopts a biennial budget for the General Fund, the Transportation Fund, and other Special Revenue funds. A budgetary comparison statement has been provided for the General Fund and the Transportation Fund to demonstrate compliance with the current fiscal year budgets.
Proprietary funds (Enterprise funds and Internal Service funds) are used to show activities that operate more like those of commercial enterprises. Enterprise funds charge fees for services provided to outside customers. They are used to report the same functions presented as business-type activities in the government-wide financial statements. Internal Service funds are an accounting device used to accumulate and allocate costs internally among the State's various functions. The State uses Internal Service funds to account for correction industries, information technology, and administrative services. Because these services predominately benefit governmental rather than business-type functions, they have been included within governmental activities in the government-wide financial statements.
Fiduciary funds are used to account for resources held by the State in a trustee or agency capacity for others. Fiduciary funds are not included in the government-wide financial statements because the resources of those funds are not available to support the State's own programs. The accounting used for fiduciary funds is much like that used for proprietary funds.
Notes to the Financial Statements
The notes to the financial statements provide additional information that is essential to a full understanding of the data provided in the government-wide and fund financial statements.
Required Supplementary Information
The basic financial statements are followed by a section of required supplementary information that further explains and supports the information in the financial statements. The required supplementary information includes information regarding the State's progress on funding its obligation to provide pension and other postemployment benefits to its employees.
In addition to the basic financial statements and accompanying notes, this report also contains the following information.
FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF THE GOVERNMENT AS A WHOLE
As noted earlier, net assets may serve over time as a useful indicator of the State's financial position. During the current fiscal year, the combined net asset deficit of the State increased 121 percent to $5.1 billion. In comparison, last year the combined net asset deficit increased 807 percent.
State Of Connecticut's Net Assets
(Expressed in Millions)
|Governmental Activities||Business-Type Activities||Total Primary
|Current and Other Assets||$4,273||$ 5,122||$ 3,861||$ 3,805||$ 8,134||$ 8,927|
|Invested in Capital Assets,|
|Net of Related Debt||5,500||4,914||2,612||2,558||8,112||7,472|
|Total Net Assets (Deficit)||$(9,569)||$ (6,955)||$ 4,504||$ 4,663||$ (5,065)||$ (2,292)|
*Restated for comparative purposes. See Note 22.
The net asset deficit of the State's governmental activities increased $2.6 billion (37.6 percent) to $9.6 billion during the current fiscal year. Of this amount, $7.1 billion was invested in capital assets (buildings, roads, bridges, etc.) or was restricted for various purposes, resulting in an unrestricted net asset deficit of $16.7 billion. This deficit is the result of having long-term obligations that are greater than currently available resources. Specifically, the State has recorded the following outstanding long-term obligations which contributed to the deficit; a) general obligation bonds in the amount of $7.2 billion which were issued to finance various municipal grant programs (e.g., school construction) and a contribution to a pension trust fund, and b) other long-term obligations in the amount of $5.6 billion (e.g., net pension obligation and compensated absences).
Net assets of the State's business-type activities decreased $0.2 billion
(3.4 percent) to $4.5 billion during the current fiscal year. Of this amount,
$4.1 billion was invested in capital assets or was restricted for various
purposes, resulting in unrestricted net assets of $0.4 billion. These resources
cannot be used to make up for the net asset deficit of the State's governmental
activities. The State can only use these net assets to finance the ongoing
operations of its Enterprise funds (such as the University of Connecticut and
Health Center, Bradley International Airport, and others).
CHANGE IN NET ASSETS
Changes in net assets for the years ended June 30, 2009 and 2008 were as follows:
State of Connecticut's Changes in Net Assets
(Expressed in Millions)
|Governmental Activities||Business-Type Activities||Total||%change|
|Charges for Services||$1,490||$1,448||$3,108||$3,000||$4,598||$4,448||3.4%|
|Operating Grants and Contributions||5,553||4,271||907||323||6,460||4,594||40.6%|
|Capital Grants and Contributions||646||442||64||36||710||478||48.5%|
|Casino Gaming Payments||378||411||-||-||378||411||-8.0%|
|Regulation and Protection||731||789||-||-||731||789||-7.4%|
|Conservation and Development||550||474||-||-||550||474||16.0%|
|Health and Hospitals||2,344||2,298||-||-||2,344||2,298||2.0%|
|Education, Libraries and|
|Interest and Fiscal Charges||810||734||-||-||810||734||10.4%|
|University of Connecticut &|
|Bradley International Airport||-||-||68||68||68||68||0.0%|
|CT Lottery Corporation||-||-||723||732||723||732||-1.2%|
|Before Transfers and Special Items||(1,754)||(1,265)||(1,117)||(696)||(2,871)||(1,961)||46.4%|
|Increase (Decrease) in|
|Net Assets (Deficit) -|
|Beginning (as restated)||(6,955)||(4,911)||4,663||4,580||(2,292)||(331)||592.4%|
|Net Assets (Deficit) - Ending||$(9,569)||$(6,955)||$4,504||$4,663||$(5,065)||$(2,292)||121.0%|
Special Items are significant transactions or other activity within management's
control that are either unusual in nature or infrequent in occurrence.
The following charts provide a two year comparison of governmental activities revenues and expenses.
During the year, total revenues of governmental activities increased slightly
to $19.8 billion, while total expenses increased 2.4 percent to $21.5 billion.
In comparison, last year total revenues and expenses increased 2.8 percent and
16.0 percent, respectively. The small increase in total revenues was due mainly
to an increase in grant revenues of $1.5 billion (31.5 percent) that was offset
by a decrease in tax revenues of $1.4 billion (10.9 percent). Although, total
expenses exceeded total revenues by $1.7 billion, this excess was increased by
transfers of $0.9 billion, resulting in a decrease in net assets of $2.6
The following charts provide a two year comparison of business-type activities revenues and expenses.
During the year, total revenues of business-type activities increased 19.5
percent to $4.2 billion, while total expenses increased by 26.4 percent to $5.3
billion. In comparison, last year total revenues and expenses increased 3.5
percent and 6.9 percent, respectively. The increase in total expenses was due
mainly to an increase in Employment Security expenses of $1.0 billion or 149.1
percent. Although, total expenses exceeded total revenues by $1.1 billion, this
excess was reduced by transfers and special items of $0.9 billion, resulting in
a decrease in net assets of $0.2 billion.
FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF THE STATE'S FUNDS
The focus of the State's governmental funds is to provide information on near-term inflows, outflows, and balances of spendable resources. Such information is useful in assessing the State's financing requirements. In particular, unreserved fund balance serves as a useful measure of the State's net resources available for spending at the end of the fiscal year.
As of June 30, 2009, the State's governmental funds had fund balances of $1.4
billion, a decrease of $1.7 billion when compared to the prior year ending fund
balances. Of the total governmental fund balances, $3.2 billion represents
reserved fund balance, meaning that this portion is not available for the new
spending because it has already been committed for specific purposes. The
remainder of fund balance is an unreserved deficit fund balance of $1.8 billion.
The General Fund is the chief operating fund of the State. As of June 30, 2009, the General Fund had a fund balance deficit of $0.8 billion. Of this amount, $1.5 billion was reserved for various purposes, leaving a deficit of $2.3 billion in unreserved fund balance. Fund balance decreased by $1.7 billion during the current fiscal year.
Debt Service Fund
As of June 30, 2009, the Debt Service Fund had a fund balance of $679 million, all of which was reserved. Fund balance decreased by $4 million during the current fiscal year.
As of June 30, 2009, the Transportation Fund had a fund balance of $154 million. Of this amount, $64 million was reserved for various purposes, leaving $90 million in unreserved fund balance. Fund balance decreased by $72 million during the current fiscal year.
Restricted Grants and Accounts Fund
As of June 30, 2009, the Restricted Grants and Accounts Fund had a fund balance of $578 million, all of which was reserved. Fund balance decreased by $38 million during the fiscal year.
The State's Proprietary funds provide the same type of information found in the government-wide financial statements, but in more detail. Accordingly, a discussion of the financial activities of the Proprietary funds has been provided in that section.
The State maintains Fiduciary funds for the assets of Pension and Other
Employee Benefit Trust funds, an Investment Trust fund, and a Private-Purpose
Trust fund. As of June 30, 2009, the net assets of the State's Fiduciary funds
totaled $21.6 billion, a decrease of $5.5 billion when compared to the prior
year ending net asset balance.
Budgetary Highlights-General Fund
The General Fund had a budget deficit estimated to be $10 million at the beginning of the fiscal year. Because the economy continued to be in a recession during the fiscal year, the deficit estimate grew to $946 million by the end of the fiscal year.
Although actual fund expenditures exceeded revenues by $1,534 million, this excess was reduced by other financing sources of $586 million, resulting in an actual deficit of $948 million for the fiscal year. A portion of the 2008 surplus in the amount of $179 million was spent during the fiscal year. This amount was reported as other financing source in the budgetary statement.
Actual revenues were lower than originally budgeted by $1,276 million for the fiscal year. This negative revenue variance resulted mainly from a negative tax revenue variance of $2,263 million that was offset by positive federal and transfer revenue variances of $1,089 million. Some of the actual tax revenues that were lower than originally budgeted were as follows: personal income, $1,290 million; sales and use, $429 million; corporations, $176 million; and real estate conveyance, $113 million.
Final budgeted appropriations were almost the same as originally budgeted for the fiscal year.
CAPITAL ASSETS AND DEBT ADMINISTRATION
The State's investment in capital assets for its governmental and business-type activities as of June 30, 2009 totaled $14.4 billion (net of accumulated depreciation). This investment in capital assets includes land, buildings, improvements other than buildings, equipment, infrastructure, and construction in progress. The net increase in the State's investment in capital assets for the fiscal year was $1.1 billion, due mainly to a 10 percent increase in governmental activities' capital assets.
Major capital asset events during the fiscal year included the following:
The following table is a two year comparison of the investment in capital assets presented for both governmental and business-type activities:
State of Connecticut's Capital Assets
(Net of Depreciation, in Millions)
|Land||$2,295||$ 1,400||$ 60||$ 60||$ 2,355||$ 1,460|
|Improvements Other than Buildings||222||174||252||249||474||423|
|Construction in Progress||1,337||1,342||193||250||1,530||1,592|
|Total||$ 1,076||$ 10,028||$ 3,352||$ 3,326||$ 14,428||$ 13,354|
* Restated for comparative purposes. See Note 22.
Additional information on the State's capital assets can be found in Note 10 of this report.
At the end of the current fiscal year, the State had total bonded debt of $18.5 billion. Pursuant to various public and special acts, the State has authorized the issuance of the following types of debt: general obligation debt (payable from the General Fund), special tax obligation debt (payable from the Debt Service Fund), and revenue debt (payable from specific revenues of the Enterprise funds).
The following table is a two year comparison of bonded debt presented for both governmental and business-type activities:
State of Connecticut's Bonded Debt (in millions)
|Net Pension Obligation||$2,021||$ 1,917||$ -||$ -||$ 2,021||$ 1,917|
|Net OPEB Obligation||2,543||1,234||-||-||2,543||1,234|
|Total||$ 5,618||$ 4,112||$ 525||$ 525||$ 6,143||$ 4,637|
The State's total bonded debt increased by $0.9 billion (5.3 percent) during the current fiscal year. This increase resulted mainly from an increase in general obligation bonds of $0.6 billion (including bond anticipation notes) and an increase in revenue bonds of $0.2 billion.
The State's General Obligation Bonds are rated Aa3, AA, and AA by Moody's Investor Service, Standard and Poor's Corporation, and Fitch Ratings, respectively. Special Tax Obligation Bonds are rated A1, AA, AA- by Moody's Investor Service, Standard and Poor's Corporation, and Fitch Ratings, respectively.
Section 3-21 of the Connecticut General Statutes provides that the total amount of bonds, notes or other evidences of indebtedness payable from General Fund tax receipts authorized by the General Assembly but have not been issued and the total amount of such indebtedness which has been issued and remains outstanding shall not exceed 1.6 times the total estimated General Fund tax receipts of the State for the current fiscal year. In computing the indebtedness at any time, revenue anticipation notes, refunded indebtedness, bond anticipation notes, tax increment financing, budget deficit bonding, revenue bonding, balances in debt retirement funds and other indebtedness pursuant to certain provisions of the General Statutes shall be excluded from the calculation. As of February 2009, the State had a debt incurring margin of $5.9 billion.
Other Long-Term Debt
State of Connecticut's Other Long - Term Debt (in Millions)
|Net Pension Obligation||$ 2,021||$ 1,917||$ -||$ -||$ 2,021||$ 1,917|
|Net OPEB Obligation||2,543||1,234||-||-||2,543||1,234|
|Total||$5,618||$ 4,112||$ 525||$ 525||$ 6,143||$ 4,637|
The State's other long-term obligations increased by $1.5 billion (32.5 percent) during the fiscal year. This increase was due mainly to an increase in the Net OPEB Obligation of $1.3 billion.
Additional information on the State's long-term debt can be found in Notes 17 and 18 of this report.
Economic Factors and Next Year's Budget
During the fiscal year, the State's economy continued to be in a recession. The State lost 65,100 payroll jobs over the fiscal year, bringing the unemployment rate to 8.00 percent - the highest rate for the last twenty years. New home permits and new auto registrations decreased 46.9 percent and 33.9 percent over the fiscal year, respectively. New business starts declined 8.8 percent, while business terminations increased 17.2 percent over the fiscal year. Personal income decreased 1.7 percent to $193.6 billion for the fiscal year. Nationally, the economy showed signs of improvement by growing 3.5 percent in the third quarter of 2009, after posting declines of 6.4 percent and 0.7 percent in the first and second quarters of the year, respectively. However, the unemployment rate continued to grow, reaching 9.8 percent by the end of the third quarter of the year.
For fiscal year 2010, the General Fund had a budget surplus initially estimated to be $2 million. Budgeted revenues were expected to increase 2.3 percent to $17,372 million, while budgeted appropriations were expected to decrease 1.7 percent to $17,370 million. However, due to the continuing economic recession, the Fund had an estimated budget deficit of $515 million by the second half of the fiscal year. Budgeted revenues and appropriations were expected to be $357.4 million lower and $157.6 million higher than originally anticipated, respectively. To eliminate the estimated budget deficit, the Governor proposed spending cuts of $284 million and transfers of cash from other state funds of $53 million. Because some of the proposed spending cuts needed legislative approval, the Governor called the legislature into special session. At this writing, no legislation has been enacted to mitigate the Fiscal Year 2010 General Fund deficit. If the fiscal year closes with a deficit, additional borrowing will be required.
CONTACTING THE STATE'S OFFICES OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
This financial report is designed to provide our citizens, taxpayers, customers, investors, and creditors with a general overview of the State's finances and to demonstrate the State's accountability for the money it receives. If you have any questions about this report, please contact the State Comptroller's Office at 1-860-702-3350.