State of Connecticut


The following discussion and analysis is supplementary information required by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB), and is intended to provide an easily readable explanation of the information provided in the attached basic financial statements. It is by necessity highly summarized, and in order to gain a thorough understanding of the state's financial position, the financial statements and footnotes should be viewed in their entirety.



Assets of the state's governmental activities were $5.4 billion less than liabilities, a deterioration in financial position of $0.2 billion related to current year operations. Assets of the state's business type activities exceeded liabilities by $3.7 billion, which are by and large unchanged from that of the prior year. In terms of the total, net assets declined from negative $1.6 billion to a negative $1.8 billion, a decrease in total net assets of $0.2 billion.

As noted above, the governmental portion of state liabilities exceeded state governmental assets by $5.4 billion as of June 30, 2004. Of this amount, the unrestricted net asset portion was a negative $10.4 billion. One reason for the negative balance is the state's reliance on issuing bonds to fund certain operating grants. General Obligation bonds outstanding as of June 30, 2004 that related to municipal school construction, and other operating grants and loans totaled $3.1 billion. Additionally, long-term obligations such as net pension, compensated absences and worker's compensation obligations of $4.1 billion, with no offsetting assets, further contributed to the state's negative net assets.

Fund Level:

Total Governmental fund assets exceeded liabilities resulting in a fund balance of $1.9 billion, all of which was reserved leaving a net unreserved fund balance of just under zero. The portion of unreserved undesignated fund balance that pertains to the General Fund was a negative $0.9 billion at June 30, 2004.

Total Enterprise Fund assets exceeded liabilities resulting in net assets of $3.7 billion, substantially all of which was restricted or invested in capital assets.

Debt Issued and Outstanding:

Long-term bonded debt of governmental activities totaled $12.9 billion (see Note 16). In addition, $0.3 billion in Economic Recovery Notes was outstanding on June 30, 2004. Other long-term liabilities totaled $4.2 billion.


There are three major parts to the basic financial statements: 1) government-wide financial statements, 2) fund financial statements, and 3) notes to the financial statements. This report also contains other supplementary information in addition to the basic financial statements.

GOVERNMENT-WIDE STATEMENTS (Reporting the State as a Whole)

Governments have traditionally focused their reporting on groupings of funds rather than on the government taken as a whole. The GASB 34 financial reporting model, upon which this report is based, retains this traditional focus on funds and adds an additional focus on the overall government's financial position and operations.

The Statement of Net Assets and the Statement of Activities are two financial statements that report information about the state as a whole and its activities. These statements help to demonstrate how the state's financial position as a whole changed due to the year's operating activities. These statements include all non-fiduciary assets and liabilities using the accrual basis of accounting.

The Statement of Net Assets presents all of the state's assets and liabilities, with the difference between the two reported as net assets. Over time, increases and decreases in net assets measure whether the state's financial position is improving or not.

The Statement of Activities presents information showing how the state's net assets changed during the most recent fiscal year. All changes in net assets are reported as soon as the underlying event giving rise to the change occur, regardless of the timing of related cash flows. Therefore, revenues and expenses are reported in these statements for some items that will result in future fiscal year cash flows (e.g., earned but unused vacation time).

Both statements report three activities:

Financial reporting for governmental activities traditionally has focused on changes in current spendable resources rather than on changes in total resources. This traditional focus has been retained for purposes of fund reporting. However, as governmental activities are included with other activities in the government-wide financial statement format, the focus for these activities shifts to changes in total resources. In other words, all activities reported in government-wide financial statements are reported in a manner similar to private-sector accounting. To increase the readers understanding, a summary reconciliation of the difference between the governmental fund financial statements and the government-wide financial statements is provided as part of the basic financial statements.


Fund financial statements focus on individual parts of the state's operations in more detail than the government-wide statements. Funds are accounting devices that governments use to keep track of specific sources of funding and spending for particular purposes. The state of Connecticut is required to report four categories of fund statements - governmental, proprietary, and fiduciary funds, to the extent that state activities meet the criteria for using these funds, and "combining statements" for its component units.

As a practical matter, governments have traditionally been combining similar individual funds into groupings or "fund types" (i.e., general fund, special revenue funds, debt service funds, capital projects funds, enterprise funds, internal service funds and trust & agency funds). In the past, it was these fund types, rather than individual funds, that have been the focus of the combined financial statements presented in financial reports. Under the GASB 34 financial reporting model, as presented here, governments focus on major individual funds rather than on fund types (with aggregated information presented for the total of all non-major funds).

Major Governmental Fund Financial Statements:

Governmental fund reporting focuses primarily on the sources uses and balances of current financial resources and often has a budgetary orientation. The state's major government funds include the General Fund, the Transportation Fund and the Debt Service Fund.

General Fund. The General Fund functions as the chief operating fund for the state government. All of the state's activities are reported in the General Fund unless there is a compelling reason to report them elsewhere.

Transportation Fund. The Transportation Fund is a special revenue fund that accounts for motor vehicle taxes, receipts and transportation related federal revenues collected for payment of debt service requirements and budgeted expenditures of the Department of Transportation and the Department of Motor Vehicles. The Department of Transportation is responsible for all aspects of the planning, development, maintenance and improvement of the state transportation system.

Debt Service Fund. The Debt Service Fund is a governmental fund, which accounts for the accumulation of resources for, and the payment of, Special Tax obligation principal and interest.

Changes in budgetary reporting. Traditionally, governments have included a budget-to-actual comparison as one of their basic financial statements. The final amended budget has provided the budgetary amounts used for this presentation. The GASB 34 financial reporting model brought three important changes to traditional practice.

Major Proprietary Fund Financial Statements:

Proprietary funds (enterprise and internal service) are accounted for using the flow of economic resources measurement focus and the accrual basis of accounting where all assets and liabilities are reported on the balance sheet. Revenues are recorded when earned and expenses are recorded when incurred. In accordance with the requirements of the GASB 34 reporting model utilized in preparation of this report:

Enterprise funds report activities that provide goods or services to the general public. An example is the Connecticut Lottery. Internal service funds report activities that provide supplies and services to the state's other programs and activities. An example is the state's motor fleet operations. Internal service funds are reported as governmental activities on the government-wide statements

Fiduciary Fund Financial Statements:

The fiduciary fund category includes pension (and other employee benefit) trust funds, investment-trust fund, private-purpose-trust fund and agency funds. These fund types should be used to report resources held and administered by the state when it is acting in a fiduciary capacity for individuals, private organizations or other governments. Some of the important changes to traditional reporting include the following:

Limitation on the use of fiduciary funds. The use of fiduciary funds has been limited to accounting for resources that are not available to support a government's operations and programs. This limitation resulted in the non-fiduciary reclassification of numerous expendable and non-expendable trust funds reported in the Comprehensive Annual Financial Report prior to Fiscal Year 2002.

Changes in fiduciary funds. The distinction between expendable and non-expendable trust funds has been eliminated. Instead, some expendable trust funds have been reclassified and are now reported as special revenue funds while others have been replaced by the "private-purpose" trust fund. This fund type is used to report all trust arrangements under which principal and income are to be used to benefit individuals, private organizations or other governments. Non-expendable or endowment-like arrangements available to support the operations or programs of the government (e.g., cemetery perpetual care funds) are accounted for in a governmental fund type, newly created by GASB statement 34, called "permanent funds."

Component Unit Combining Statements:

The same GASB 34 reporting rules regarding the determination of major funds are applied to the states component units. The Component units of the State of Connecticut are:

Connecticut Housing Finance Authority. Classified as a major component unit, the CHFA is a public instrumentality and political subdivision created for the purpose of increasing the housing supply and encouraging and assisting in the purchase, development and construction of housing for low and moderate income families.

Connecticut Health and Educational Facilities Authority. Classified as a major component unit, CHEFA's purpose is to provide resources for financing major projects for health and educational institutions.

Connecticut Development Authority. CDA's purpose is to stimulate commercial development.

Connecticut Resources Recovery Authority. CRRA's purpose is solid waste management.

Connecticut Higher Education Supplemental Loan Authority. CHESLA's purpose is to provide resources for student loans.

Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated. CI's purpose is to stimulate application of new technology.

Capital City Economic Development Authority. CCEDA's purpose is to stimulate economic development in the city of Hartford.

University of Connecticut Foundation, Inc. The foundation's purpose is to solicit, receive, and administer gifts and financial resources from private sources for the benefit of the University of Connecticut.


Notes To The Financial Statements. The notes provide additional information that is essential to a full understanding of the data provided in the government-wide and the fund financial statements.

Required Supplementary Information. The RSI provides additional information regarding the States progress on funding its obligation to provide pension benefits to its employees.

Combining Financial Statements. Combining statements for non-major funds are not required to be presented or audited under generally accepted accounting principals. Nevertheless, Connecticut presents these statements as supplementary information, in the optional part of this report.



The following table was derived from the government-wide Statement of Net Assets. The state's combined net assets declined $0.2 billion over the course of Fiscal Year 2004 operations. The net assets of governmental activities decreased by the same $0.2 billion, while net assets from business-type activities remained by and large unchanged from the prior year.

State Of Connecticut's Net Assets
(in Millions)

Total Primary
Governmental Activities Business-type Activities Government
2004 2003 2004 2003 2004 2003
Current and Other Assets $ 3,902.0 $ 3,142.0 $ 3,575.4 $ 3,515.9 $ 7,477.4 $ 6,657.8
Capital Assets 9,618.8 9,531.9 2,857.0 2,621.5 12,475.8 12,153.4
Total Assets 13,520.8 12,673.9 6,432.4 6,137.4 19,953.2 18,811.3
Current Liabilities 2,914.2 2,345.6 606.9 549.8 3,521.1 2,895.4
Long-term Liabilities 16046.9 15,638.3 2,165.6 1,964.3 18,212.5 17,602.6
Total Liabilities 18,961.2 17,983.9 2,772.5 2,514.1 21,733.6 20,498.0
Invested in Capital Assets,
Net of Related Debt 3,264.1 2,622.4 2,209.5 2,093.9 5,473.6 4,716.3
Restricted 1,686.1 1,245.3 1,409.9 1,402.1 3,096.0 2,647.4
Unrestricted (10,390.5) (9,177.7) 40.5 127.3 (10,350.0) (9,050.4)
Total Net Assets $ (5,440.3) $ (5,310.0) $ 3,659.9 $ 3,623.3 $ (1,780.4) $ (1,686.7)

The following condensed financial information was derived from the government-wide Statement of Activities and reflects the nature of the state's change in net assets throughout Fiscal Year 2004.

State of Connecticut's Changes in Net Assets
(Expressed in Millions)

Governmental Activities Business-Type Activities Total
2004 2003 2004 2003 2004 2003
Program Revenues
Charges for Services 1,253.7 1,072.9 $ 2,936.0 2,594.8 4,189.7 3,667.7
Operating Grants and Contributions 3,850.1 3,489.2 227.7 456.2 4,077.8 3,945.5
Capital Grants and Contributions 543.8 562.6 9.3 10.2 553.1 572.8
General Revenues
Taxes 9,741.8 8,644.7 - - 9,741.8 8,644.7
Casino Gaming Payments 402.7 387.3 - - 402.7 387.3
Other 134.9 435.8 90.5 111.3 225.4 547.1
Total Revenues 15,927.0 14,592.5 3,263.5 3,172.5 19,190.5 17,765.1
Legislative 89.5 80.2 - - 89.5 80.2
General Government 1,100.7 1,145.6 - - 1,100.7 1,145.6
Regulation and Protection 590.4 574.7 - - 590.4 574.7
Conservation and Development 448.0 410.2 - - 448.0 410.2
Health and Hospitals 1,683.4 1,711.1 - - 1,683.4 1,711.1
Transportation 1,153.9 941.3 - - 1,153.9 941.3
Human Services 4,630.2 4,138.9 - - 4,630.2 4,138.9
Education, Libraries and Museums 3,174.3 3,090.6 - - 3,174.3 3,090.6
Corrections 1,579.0 1,450.4 - - 1,579.0 1,450.4
Judicial 546.2 555.8 - - 546.2 555.8
Interest and Fiscal Charges 577.4 595.9 - - 577.4 595.9
University of Connecticut - - 1,254.4 1,187.7 1,254.4 1,187.7
State Universities - - 469.7 463.3 469.7 463.3
Bradley International Airport - - 59.3 54.3 59.3 54.3
CT Lottery Corporation - - 656.7 643.2 656.7 643.2
Employment Security - - 811.5 963.2 811.5 963.2
Clean Water - - 24.8 29.4 28.4 29.4
Other - - 361.4 364.6 361.4 364.6
Total Expenses 15,573.0 14,694.7 3,637.8 3,705.8 19,210.8 18,400.5
Excess (Deficiency) Before Transfers, Special and Extraordinary Items 354.0 (102.2) (374.3) (533.3) (20.3) (635.5)
Transfers (417.1) (640.2) 417.1 640.3 - 0.1
Special and Extraordinary Items (157.2) - (6.2) (6.5) (163.4) (6.5)
Increase (Decrease) in Net Assets (220.3) (742.4) 36.6 100.5 (183.7) (641.9)
Net Assets (Deficit) - Beginning (Restated) (5,220.0) (4,567.6) 3,623.3 3,522.8 (1,596.7) (1,044.8)
Net Assets (Deficit) - Ending (5,440.3) (5,310.0) $3,659.9 $3,623.3 (1,780.4) $(1,686.7)

Special Items are significant transactions or other activity within management's control that are either unusual in nature or infrequent in occurrence. Extraordinary items are activities that are both unusual in nature and infrequent in occurrence.


The following charts depict the distribution of revenues and expenses for Fiscal Year 2004.

Revenues - Governmental Activities Fiscal Year 2004. Click here for chart description.

Expenses - Governmental Activities Fiscal Year 2004. Click here for chart description.

Expenses and Program Revenues - Governmental Activities Fiscal Year 2004.

Within governmental activities, Fiscal Year 2004 program expenses were $9.9 billion higher than program revenues. However, this excess of expenses over related program revenue was offset by general revenue in the amount of $9.7 billion, resulting in a decrease in net assets of $0.2 billion for the year. Had a transfer of loans to component units of $0.2 billion (a Special Item) not occurred, there would have been almost no change in net assets for the year.

During the fiscal year 2004, budget projections indicated that budgeted revenues would exceed the budgeted level of expenditures (on a modified cash basis of accounting) producing an operating surplus in the General Fund. As a result, legislation was enacted (Public Act 04-216) to restore funding for various program activities that had been cut as part of the state's Fiscal Year 2003 deficit mitigation efforts. The restored funding totaled $112.4 million in Fiscal Year 2004. In addition, $150.3 million of the Fiscal Year 2004 General Fund operating surplus was reserved to support Fiscal Year 2005 anticipated spending requirements.

Business-Type activities achieved a near breakeven on operations for fiscal year 2004. Expenses of the Higher Education institutions, which include the University of Connecticut, the State University System and Connecticut Community Colleges, accounted for 61.7 percent of business-type expenses and 44.2 percent of program revenues. Program revenues exceeded expenses in the Connecticut Lottery Corporation by $0.2 billion.


The state completed Fiscal Year 2004 with a fund balance of $2.0 billion in its governmental funds. The unreserved portion of fund balance, totaling a deficit of $47.0 million, is net of a $0.9 billion short fall in the general fund unreserved fund balance. Governmental fund expenditures exceeded fund revenues by $0.5 billion before other financing sources and special items totaling $0.9 billion. As a result fund balance for all governmental funds increased by $0.4 billion in fiscal year 2004.

General Fund

The General Fund is the chief operating fund of the state. At the end of Fiscal Year 2004, the General Fund had a negative fund balance of $0.2 billion of which a negative $0.9 billion was unreserved. The excess of general fund revenues over expenditures totaled $0.7 billion. Net other financing uses totaling $0.5 billion included a transfer of $0.3 billion to establish a new special revenue fund, the Restricted Grants & Accounts fund. This resulted in an increase in fund balance of $0.2 billion for the fiscal year. Tax increases and other revenue enhancements enacted by the legislature and signed by the governor during Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Acts 03-2 and 03-1 of the June Special Session) generated over $800 million in additional Fiscal Year 2004 revenue, and spending reductions implemented in fiscal year 2003 and continued and annualized into fiscal year 2004 were projected to save over $300 million (the estimates are on a budgetary basis or modified cash basis of accounting). These actions helped avert a large General Fund operating deficit in Fiscal Year 2004 and to ultimately generate a General Fund surplus .

Transportation Fund

The Transportation Fund ended Fiscal Year 2004 with a fund balance of $0.2 billion of which $0.1 billion was unreserved. Fund balance was reduced by $2.0 million through Fiscal Year 2004 operations.

Other Funds

The other funds category includes the state's special revenue, capital projects and permanent funds. These funds had a balance of $1.3 billion on June 30, 2004 of which $0.7 billion was unreserved. In fiscal 2004 the Clean Energy fund, which in prior years was combined with the CT Innovations, Inc. component unit, was presented as part of the environmental fund, a special revenue fund of the state.

In Fiscal Year 2004, expenditures exceeded revenues by $1.2 billion in the other funds category. Bonds issued in the amount of $1.3 billion provided an offset to this deficit. The state has a long history of utilizing bond proceeds to offset operating deficits within these funds.


Capital Assets.

The State of Connecticut's investment in capital assets for its governmental and business-type activities as of June 30, 2004 amounts to $12.4 billion (net of accumulated depreciation). The total of capital assets for governmental activities remained largely unchanged from the prior year while the increase for business-type activities was 9.0%. Depreciation charges for the fiscal year totaled $0.8 billion.

State of Connecticut's Capital Assets
(Net of Depreciation, in Millions)

Governmental Business-type Total
Activities Activities Primary Government
2004 2003(1) 2004 2003(2) 2004 2003
Land $935.0 $ 911.8 $51.9 $ 44.8 986.9 $956.6
Buildings 1,036.3 879.9 1,916.1 1,706.1 2,952.4 2,586.0
Improvements Other than Buildings 133.9 63.2 245.5 230.0 379.4 293.2
Equipment 445.8 458.4 350.0 355.7 795.8 813.9
Infrastructure 6,731.4 5,481.8 - - 6,731.4 6,758.4
Construction in Progress 336.5 1,736.9 293.4 285.1 629.9 745.4
Total $9,618.9 $ 9,532.0 2,621.5 $ 2,621.5 $12,475.8 $12,153.5

1) Totals differ with that of the prior year due to the recording of software costs . See footnote number 21.
(2) Totals differ with that of the prior year due to the implementation of GASB 39. See footnote number 21.

Additional information on the State of Connecticut's capital assets can be found in Note 10 of this report.

Long-term Debt.

The state, pursuant to various public and special acts, has authorized a variety of types of debt which fall into the following categories: direct general obligation debt, which is payable from the state's general fund; special tax obligation debt, which is payable from the debt service fund and revenue debt, which is payable from specified revenues of enterprise funds.

State of Connecticut's Outstanding Debt
General Obligation and Revenue Bonds (in Millions)

Governmental Business-type Total
Activities Activities Primary Government
2004 2003 2004 2003 2004 2003
General Obligation Bonds $9,606.6 $ 9,216.4 $- $ - $9,606.6 $ 9,216.4
Transportation Related Bonds 3,153.9 3,205.8 - - 3,153.9 3,205.8
Revenue Bonds - - 1,713.8 1,547.5 1,713.8 1,547.5
Total $12,760.5 $ 12,422.2 $1,713.8 $ 1,547.5 $14,474.30 $ 13,969.7

In Fiscal Year 2004 the state increased outstanding bonds by $0.6 billion. For the year, outstanding debt in governmental activities increased by 2.7 percent and for business-type activities the increase was 10.8 percent. It should also be noted that the state also issued $97.7 million in economic recovery notes (see note 17). The state's General Obligation bonds are rated Aa3, AA and AA by Moodys, Standard and Poors and Fitch respectively. Special Tax Obligation bonds are rated A1, AA-, AA- by Moodys, Standard and Poors and Fitch respectively.

Section 3-21 of the Connecticut General Statutes provides that the total amount of bonds, notes or other evidences of indebtedness payable from general fund tax receipts authorized by the General Assembly but have not been issued and the total amount of such indebtedness which has been issued and remains outstanding shall not exceed 1.6 times the total estimated general fund tax receipts of the state for the current fiscal year. In computing the indebtedness at any time, revenue anticipation notes, refunded indebtedness, bond anticipation notes, tax increment financing, budget deficit bonding, revenue bonding, balances in debt retirement funds and other indebtedness pursuant to certain provisions of the General Statutes shall be excluded from the calculation.


This financial report is designed to provide our citizens, taxpayers, customers, investors, and creditors with a general overview of the state's finances and to demonstrate the state's accountability for the money it receives. If you have any questions about this report, please contact the State Comptroller's Office at 1-860-702-3350.